Directory of Ingredients Used in Chocolate, Candy, Gum & Mints

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Acai Puree Concentrate

Acesulfame Potassium
A zero-calorie sweetener with about 200 times the sweetness of sugar. Also known as acesulfame-K, Ace-K®, Sunette, and Sweet One®. “K” is the chemical symbol for potassium.

Acetic Acid
The component of vinegar that gives vinegar its characteristic aroma and flavor.

Acetylated Monoglycerides

Alkali
Substances that neutralize acid level (or substances that increase basicity).

Almond Oil
Oil that is derived from almonds.

Almonds
Small, oval nuts that grow inside the fruit on the almond tree. Almonds can be eaten in many different ways, such as roasted and salted, and can even be ground into flour or churned into almond butter.

Annatto (Color and Extract)
A natural flavor and yellow-to-orange color derived from the seeds of the achiote tree.

Apple Juice Concentrate

Artificial Color (Colour)
A color additive that is added to a food or beverage to enhance the color. It can be used in various forms such as liquids, powders, and gels. (The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (U.S. FDA) considers any substance added for color to be artificial color regardless of a natural or synthetic origin.) For more information, visit here: More On Candy Colors

Artificial Flavor (Flavour)
A food additive that adds or enhances the flavor of food and drinks and is made from components obtained by chemical synthesis.

Ascorbic Acid
A food additive that helps flavor food. Also known as Vitamin C.

Ascorbyl Palmitate
A food additive that acts as an antioxidant and preservative to increase the shelf life of a food.


Beeswax
A natural ingredient obtained from the honeycomb of bees. Used as a component of glaze on some confectionery products.

BHT
A food additive that acts as an antioxidant to preserve food and increase its shelf life. Also known as Butylated Hydroxytoluene.


Bleached Enriched Wheat Flour
Enriched wheat flour that has been treated with a FDA approved flour bleaching agent to make it look whiter in color.

Blue 1
An artificial color approved by the U.S. FDA for use in foods, drugs and cosmetics. It gives food a bright blue color. Also known as Brilliant Blue FCF. For more information, visit here: More On Candy Colors

Blue 2
An artificial color approved by the U.S. FDA for use in foods, drugs and cosmetics. It gives food a dark blue-violet color. Also known as Indigo Carmine or Indigotine. For more information on visit: Link to Food Colors page

Blueberries
A soft, white, sweet food made of sugar and eggs or gelatin.

Blueberry Juice Concentrate

Blueberry Puree Concentrate

Brown Rice Flour
A flour prepared by grinding brown rice. Brown rice flour is often used as a gluten-free alternative in cooking and baking.


Brown Sugar
Sugar that is partially refined. Brown sugar can also be made by adding molasses to refined sugar.

Butter
A solid or semi-solid dairy product created by slowly churning cream. Often used as a spread or in cooking and baking.

Buttermilk (including Powder)
A slightly sour dairy liquid obtained after butter has been churned. Buttermilk powder is the dried and flaked form of the liquid. Used in baking and cooking.

Cacao Nibs
Small, dried pieces of cacao beans (cocoa beans) obtained after the cacao beans have been cured, cleaned, dried and the shells removed. Serve as starting material for all chocolate and cocoa products.

Calcium Carbonate
A calcium compound used to fortify foods. It can also be used to adjust the acidity, stabilize ingredients or improve the texture of a product.

Calcium Caseinate

Calcium Chloride
A calcium compound used to fortify foods. It can also be used as a thickener or to stabilize ingredients.

Calcium Lactate
A calcium compound found in baking powder that helps improve the texture of baked goods. It can also be used to adjust the acidity or improve the firmness of a food.

Calcium Oxide
A calcium compound used to fortify foods. It can also be used to improve the texture of food or to adjust the acidity of a food.

Calcium Pantothenate

Calcium Stearate
A form of calcium mixed with a fatty acid. Used as an emulsifier to prevent ingredients from separating.

Calcium Sulfate (Sulphate)
A calcium compound used to fortify foods. Used to adjust the acidity, stabilize ingredients, or to increase the firmness of a product.

Cane Sugar
A common form of sugar derived from sugarcane, a type of plant that typically grows in the tropical and subtropical regions of the world.



Caramelized Sugar Syrup


Carnauba Wax
A natural substance obtained from the leaves and buds of the Brazilian fan palm tree. Used as a component of a glaze on confectionery products.

Carrageenan
A natural gum obtained from red and purple seaweeds, often used to thicken food and keep ingredients from separating.


Caseinate

Cashews
Small, kidney-shaped nuts obtained from the cashew tree. Cashews can be eaten in many different ways, such as roasted, salted or plain, and they can also be ground into cashew butter.

Cellulose Gel
A gel made from plants and used to thicken foods, improve their texture, and keep ingredients from separating.

Cellulose Gum
A gum made from cellulose and used to thicken foods, improve their texture, and keep ingredients from separating.

Cherries
Small, round, often dark-red fruit native to Europe, Asia and Africa. In the United States, they are mostly picked during the summer months, but can be eaten year-round in a variety of forms such as dried or frozen. Cherries have a sweet, mildly tart flavor.

Cherry Juice

Cherry Juice Concentrate

Cherry Puree Concentrate

Chicory Root Extract

Chicory Root Fiber

Chili Powder
A hot spice obtained by drying and grinding chili peppers.


Chocolate Liquor

Chocolate Processed With Alkali

Cinnamon
A spice obtained from the bark of the Cinnamomum tree that is used to enhance the flavor of food.


Cochineal Extract


Cocoa Butter
The naturally occurring fat obtained from cacao (cocoa) beans either before or after roasting. Cocoa butter is a unique vegetable fat extracted cacao (cocoa) beans or chocolate liquor. Its unique fatty acid composition, including palmitic, stearic, oleic and linolenic acids, provides the pleasant mouth-feel and flavor release of chocolate products.



Coconut
A large, oval, brown fruit from the coconut palm tree. The white edible coconut flesh is found on the inside of the shell and is often found in tropical regions around the world.



Condensed Milk

Confectioner's Glaze
A clear coating that is applied to foods to improve their appearance and protect them.

Corn Flour
A flour prepared by grinding corn and removing its water content.

Corn Meal
An ingredient made by grinding corn and removing its water content. Its texture is coarser than that of corn flour.


Corn Syrup
A sweetener made from corn starch. Also known as glucose syrup.

Corn Syrup Solids
A sweetener obtained by removing the water from corn syrup.

Cornstarch
Starch derived from corn, used as a thickener.

Cottonseed Oil

Cranberries
Small, round red berries grown all around the world. In the United States, they are often picked during the fall months, but can be eaten year round in a variety of forms, such as dried or frozen. Cranberries have a sweet and mildly tart flavor.

Cranberry Juice Concentrate

Cream (including Heavy)
A liquid ingredient composed of the butterfat present in milk.


Crisp Brown Rice
Brown rice that has been heated to create a crisp, airy texture. Adds a crunchy texture to foods.

Crisp Rice
Rice that has been heated to create a crisp, airy texture. Adds a crunchy texture to foods.

Crystallized Ginger
Ginger that has been cooked and coated with sugar.

Cultured Dextrose
A food additive prepared through the fermentation of milk or sugar that helps inhibit the growth of bacteria and mold in food.

Cyanocobalamin

D-Calcium Pantothenate

Dark Chocolate
Chocolate products that contain higher amounts of chocolate liquor or cocoa solids (not cocoa butter) than milk chocolate. The amount of chocolate ingredients required to call a product “dark chocolate” varies among countries. Dark chocolate typically contains less sugar and has a more bitter taste than milk chocolate.

Defatted Peanuts
Peanuts that have had some or all of their fat removed.

Deionized Apple Juice Concentrate
Apple juice that has gone through deionization and has had most of its water, flavor, and color removed. Used as a sweetener.


Dextrose
A simple sugar obtained most often from corn, but can be obtained from other sources as well, such as wheat, sorghum, and tapioca. Also known as glucose.

Dicalcium Phosphate
A calcium compound used to fortify foods.

Diglycerides
Composed of two glycerol molecules and a fatty acid. Used as an emulsifier to prevent ingredients from separating.

Distilled Monoglycerides

Dried Blueberries

Dried Cranberries



Edible Vegetable Monoglycerides

Egg Whites
The egg white is the clear liquid within an egg, also known as albumin. It contains about 50% of the egg's protein and has very minimal fat content.

Eggs
Chicken eggs are the most common type of eggs that humans eat. The egg is composed of the egg white and the egg yolk. Eggs contain protein, vitamins, minerals, fat, and cholesterol.

Elderberry Extract
A natural flavor obtained from the berry of the elder bush.

Elderberry Juice Concentrate

Emulsifier
A type of food additive that helps prevent the separation of ingredients, particularly mixtures of oil or fats and water.


Erythritol
A reduced-calorie sugar alcohol that is about 70% as sweet as sugar. Often used in sugar-free foods to replace sugar.

Ethyl Vanillin

Evaporated Cane Juice
The concentrated juice from sugarcane in crystallized form.


FD&C (Color/Colour Name)
Artificial colors that have been approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (U.S. FDA) to be used in foods, drugs and cosmetics (FD&C). For more information, visit here: More On Candy Colors

Ferric Orthophosphate
An iron compound used to enrich food.

Ferrous Sulfate
An iron compound used to enrich food.

Fig
A soft and sweet fruit native to the Middle East and Asia. The fruit is often dark brown on the outside and red on the inside with a lot of seeds, and it can be eaten either fresh or dried.

Flavonoids
A group of compounds found naturally in plants and plant-based foods such as blueberries, black tea and cocoa products such as cocoa and chocolate products.

Flavor (Flavour)
An ingredient added to enhance the taste of food and beverages.

Flour
A powder prepared by grinding various types of grains and removing their water content. Used to prepare different types of baked goods.

Folate (Folic Acid)
A B vitamin needed for cell growth and reproduction. Also known as folic acid and Vitamin B9.

Fondant
A thick mixture of sugar, water, and sometimes flavors and colors. Used to make candy and icing.

Fractionated Vegetable Oil
Oil that has been separated into different fat components, such as separation of a fat into solid and liquid components.

Fructose
A simple sugar that occurs naturally in fruit and honey. Used to sweeten foods and beverages.






Fumaric Acid
A food additive that is used to regulate acid content of food. Often used to replace cream of tartar or citric acid.

Gelatin Or K-Gelatin
A protein of animal origin used to thicken and stabilize foods. Gelatin labeled as “K-gelatin” is certified Kosher.

Gellan Gum
A polysaccharide used as a gelling agent in products such as gummy candies or used to keep ingredients suspended, such as in soy milk to keep the soy protein suspended in the milk.

Ginger
A spice from the stem of the plant Zingiber with a slightly hot taste.

Glucose
A simple sugar obtained most often from corn, but can be obtained from other sources as well, such as wheat, sorghum, and tapioca. Also known as dextrose.

Gluten
A natural protein found in wheat, barley, rye and sometimes oats, which helps give elasticity to dough and provide a chewy texture.

Glycerin (Glycerine)


Glyceryl Monostearate

Goji Berry Juice Concentrate

Graham Crackers
Slightly sweetened crackers made from whole wheat flour.

Graham Flour
A type of wheat flour.

Granola
A cereal, usually made by combining rolled oats, a sweetener like honey, and sometimes dried fruit, nuts and chocolate.

Grape Juice Concentrate

Green Tea (includes Powder and Solids)
A tea made from the leaves of the Camellia sinensis plant, with a pale to very light green color and bitter flavor.A tea made from the leaves of the Camellia sinensis plant, with a pale to very light green color and bitter flavor.

Guar Gum
A gum obtained from the seeds of a pea plant grown in India. Used as a thickener in food. Also known as Jaguar Gum.

Gum Acacia


Gum Base
The non-nutritive, non-digestible portion of chewing gum that consists of insoluble ingredients that remain after chewing.

Gum Tragacanth
A gum obtained from various Middle Eastern legumes. Used to thicken foods.

Hazelnuts
Small, brown nuts found in various countries around the world. Hazelnuts can be eaten in many different ways, such as roasted, salted or plain.

High Fructose Corn Syrup (HFCS)
A liquid sweetener with a sweetness level similar to table sugar. HFCS is produced from corn through the enzymatic conversion of glucose into fructose. Also called glucose/fructose in Canada or abbreviated as HFCS. The most commonly used form of HFCS is nearly identical to the composition of table sugar.

High Maltose Corn Syrup
A type of corn syrup in which a large percentage of the carbohydrates present are maltose and which contains little to no fructose.

High Oleic Sunflower Oil
Sunflower oil that has an increased amount of monounsaturated fatty acids, particularly oleic fatty acid.

Honey
A sweet, sticky fluid made by honey bees that has a comparable sweetness to table sugar.

Hydrogenated Starch Hydrolysate
A mixture of sugar alcohols used as reduced-calorie sweetener and a humectant, a way to keep foods moist.

Hydrogenated Vegetable Oil
Oils that are less susceptible to rancidity because they have had their double bonds replaced with hydrogen, similar to saturated fatty acids. The process also results in a more solid fat at room temperature.

Hydrolyzed Corn Protein
The protein obtained from the breakdown of corn into its component amino acids.

Hydrolyzed Milk Protein
The protein obtained from the breakdown of milk into its component amino acids.

Hydrolyzed Soy Protein
Soy protein that has been broken down into its component amino acids, often used to improve food texture and enhance flavor.

Hydrolyzed Whey Syrup
A natural sweetener obtained from the breakdown of milk sugar (lactose) into its basic components: glucose and galactose.

Hydroxylated Lecithin


Invert Sugar
A mixture of glucose and fructose that is sweeter than sugar, more soluble and doesn't crystallize as quickly.

Invertase
An enzyme that breaks down sucrose into its basic components: glucose and fructose (which creates invert sugar).

Isomalt
A reduced calorie sugar alcohol used to replace sugar and provide sweetness in foods.

Kona Coffee

Lactase
An enzyme that breaks down lactose, a milk sugar, into its basic components: glucose and galactose.

Lactic Acid
An organic acid naturally present in milk and is added to foods to adjust the acidity.

Lactitol
A reduced-calorie sugar alcohol derived from lactose and used to replace sugar in almost any application to provide sweetness.

Lactose
The natural sugar present in milk, also known as milk sugar.

Lactylated Monoglycerides

Lavender Essence
An essential oil of the lavender flower, pressed out of the flowers when they are seed bearing. Used to add a slight floral flavor.


Lemon
A small, often yellow citrus fruit, with a tart, sour flavor.

Lemon Extract
A natural flavor obtained from lemons.

Lemon Juice Concentrate

Lemon Oil
Oil obtained from the lemon peel. Used as a flavor.

Lemon Puree

Licorice Extract
A natural flavor obtained from the root of the licorice plant Glycyrrhyiza glabra.A natural flavor obtained from the root of the licorice plant Glycyrrhyiza glabra.

Lime Juice Concentrate

Limonene
A substance found in lemon peels and other citrus fruits used to enhance the flavor of food.

Liquid Glucose


Locust Bean Gum
A gum obtained from the carob tree. Often used as a thickening or gelling agent.

Macadamia Nuts
Small, round nuts native to Australia and also grown in Hawaii. Macadamia nuts can be eaten in many different ways, such as roasted, salted or plain.

Magnesium
A mineral found in plant and animal foods that is involved in muscle contraction and bone formation.

Magnesium Oxide
A magnesium compound used to fortify food. It can also be used to prevent caking of ingredients.

Magnesium Phosphate
A magnesium compound that acts as an emulsifier to keep ingredients from separating.

Magnesium Stearate
A form of magnesium, often derived from animal sources, which acts as a lubricant when making tablets and capsules.

Magnesium Sulfate (Sulphate)
Commonly known as Epsom Salt, a magnesium compound used to fortify foods. It can also be used to enhance flavor or to increase the firmness of a food.

Malic Acid
An ingredient naturally occurring in apples that has a smooth, tart taste. Used to enhance the flavor of food.

Malt Extract
A sweet, syrupy flavor obtained from malted barley. Also known as malt flavoring and malt powder.

Malt Syrup
Syrup made from cooked barley. Used as a sweetener and flavoring.

Malted Barley

Malted Barley Flour
A flour prepared by grinding barley and removing the water. It contains high levels of soluble fiber.

Malted Milk
A powder to flavor beverages, usually milk, made up of malted barley, wheat flour, and milk powder.

Maltitol
A reduced-calorie sugar alcohol. Used to replace sugar in foods and provide sweetness.

Maltodextrin
A carbohydrate obtained by breaking down starch – typically corn starch. Used to improve texture and flavor of food.

Maltose
A natural sweetener composed of two glucose molecules.

Manganese
A mineral found mainly in seafood and nuts involved in fat and carbohydrate metabolism.

Manganese Gluconate
A manganese compound used to fortify foods.

Mango Juice Concentrate

Mangosteen Puree Concentrate

Mannitol
A reduced-calorie sugar alcohol used to replace sugar and provide sweetness.

Marshmallow
A soft, white, sweet food made of sugar and eggs or gelatin.

Marshmallow Creme
A sweet, marshmallow-like spread.

Medium Chain Triglycerides

Milk
A white, fluid beverage produced typically from dairy cattle. A source of nutrients, including protein, and calcium.

Milk Chocolate
A food prepared by mixing chocolate liquor or cocoa powder with milk ingredients and sometimes a sweetener, such as sugar.

Milk Fat
The fat that occurs naturally in milk. Also referred to as butter fat.

Milk Ingredients
The different components of milk fat and milk solids that have not been altered in processing, including: butter, buttermilk, butter oil, milk fat, cream, milk, partly skimmed milk, and skim milk.


Milk Protein Concentrate
A dry milk product that contains about 40-90% protein. Used to increase the protein content of foods; it can also make products more heat stable, act as an emulsifier, increase the thickness, and aid in whipping and foaming.

Milk Protein Isolate
A dry milk product that contains at least 90% protein. Used to increase the protein content of food.

Mineral Oil
An oil approved by the U.S. FDA to help provide a protective coating for candy.


Mixed Tocopherols

Modified Cellulose
A complex carbohydrate that keeps ingredients from sticking together.

Modified Cornstarch
Starch derived from corn that has been modified with a permitted starch-modifying agent. Used as a thickener.

Modified Milk Ingredients
The different components of milk fat and milk solids that have been altered in processing, including: calcium-reduced skim milk, casein, casinates, cultured milk products, milk serum proteins, ultrafiltered milk, whey, whey butter, and whey cream.

Modified Potato Starch
Starch derived from potatoes that has been modified with a permitted starch-modifying agent. Used as a thickener.

Modified Vegetable Oils

Molasses
A sweetener obtained from the process of converting sugarcane or sugar beets into sugar that is strongly flavored and dark in color.

Monk Fruit Extract
A natural, no calorie sweetener extracted from monk fruit, a plant native to southern China and northern Thailand. Monk fruit extract is 300 times sweeter than sugar. Also called luo han guo.

Monocalcium Phosphate
A compound found in baking powder. It serves as a leavening agent to help baked goods rise.


Monosodium Glutamate (MSG)
A food additive that occurs naturally from the breakdown of proteins. Used to enhance the flavor of foods.

Natural Colors (U.S.)
Many consumers consider natural colors to be colors that are obtained from plants or other natural sources. However, U.S. FDA does not define natural colors and considers any color added to a food to be artificial color, regardless of the source of the color.


Natural Flavors (U.S.)
Fruit puree that has had some of its water removed. Flavors derived from a spice, fruit or fruit juice, vegetable or vegetable juice, edible yeast, herb, bark, bud, root, leaf or similar plant material, meat, seafood, poultry, eggs, dairy products, or fermentation products of these.


Neotame
A no-calorie sweetener that is 7,000 to 13,000 times sweeter than sugar. Because it is so sweet, only very small amounts are used.


Niacinamide

Nonfat Milk (Skim Milk)
Milk from which the fat has been removed. Also known as skim milk.

Nougat
There are two types of nougat: soft and traditional. Soft nougat is a type of candy that may contain cocoa, milk powder, powdered sugar, fat and egg whites. Traditional nougat is a type of candy usually made from sugar or honey, roasted nuts, egg whites, and sometimes candied fruit. Traditional nougat can either be chewy or hard.

Nutmeg
A seed from the nutmeg tree used to enhance flavor of food.

Nutmeg Oil
Oil obtained from nutmeg used as a flavor.

Oats
A type of cereal grain often eaten as oatmeal and rolled oats.

Oligosaccharides
Components of fiber, found naturally in chicory and other plants. Composed of short chains of sugar molecules.

Olive Oil
An oil produced by pressing whole olives.

Onion
A white, yellow and sometimes even red, bulb-shaped vegetable with a strong smell and taste.

Orange Juice Concentrate

Orange Puree

Organic
Products that have been produced under the guidelines set by the Organic Foods Production Act and regulated by the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) or similar regulatory authorities in other countries. Production of organic foods use farming practices that avoid most synthetic materials, such as herbicides, pesticides, and man-made fertilizers.

Palm Kernel Oil

Palm Oil
See Vegetable Oil For more information on palm oil, visit here: More On Palm Oil

Partially Defatted Peanuts
See Defatted peanuts

Partially Hydrogenated Oil (Coconut, Cottonseed, Palm, Palm Kernel, Soybean, Sunflower)
Oils that have had some of their double bonds replaced with hydrogen to obtain a more solid fat that is not as susceptible to spoiling.

Passion Fruit Juice Concentrate

Peach Juice Concentrate

Peanut Butter
A spreadable food made by grinding roasted peanuts.


Peanut Oil Extract
The essence or concentrate that is extracted from peanut oil.

Peanuts
Small legumes that can be eaten in many different ways, such as roasted, salted or plain. Peanuts can also be ground into peanut butter.

Pear Juice Concentrate

Pecans
Small, brown nuts native to South and Central North America. Pecans can be eaten in many different ways, such as roasted, salted or plain.

Pectin
A natural ingredient found in lemon and orange rinds and often in ripe fruits. Pectin is a source of soluble fiber and it is often used as a thickener and stabilizer for jams, jellies and other foods.


PGPR (Polyglycerol Polyricinoleate)
An emulsifier used to keep ingredients from separating. Derived from castor bean oil and often used to improve processing characteristics of chocolate. For more information, visit here: More On PGPR

Phenylalanine
An essential amino acid found in various proteins. People with a rare hereditary disease called phenylketonuria are unable to break down phenylalanine and are generally advised not to consume products that contain it.

Plum Juice Concentrate

Polydextrose
A reduced-calorie carbohydrate often used as a bulking agent and humectant to help products remain moist.


Polysorbate 20, 60, Or 80
An artificial ingredient composed of saturated fatty acids and sugar alcohols. Used as an emulsifier, wetting agent and dispersing agent to improve the texture of food.

Pomegranate Juice

Pomegranate Juice Concentrate

Popcorn
Corn kernels that burst open when they are heated.

Potassium Carbonate
A potassium compound used as an alkali and stabilizer.

Potassium Chloride
A potassium compound used to enhance the flavor of food, replace sodium in low-sodium foods, or thicken foods.

Potassium Lactate
A potassium compound derived from milk sugar. Used as an antioxidant, emulsifier, humectant to help keep foods moist, or to adjust the acidity of a food.

Potassium Metabisulfite
A potassium compound used as an antioxidant to protect food.

Potassium Sorbate
A potassium compound used as preservative to keep food fresh longer.

Potato Flour
A flour prepared by grinding potatoes and removing the water and fiber content.

Potato Starch
Starch derived from potatoes. Used as a thickener.

Pretzels
A baked bread product, originating from Europe, which may have a knot-like shape. They are often flavored with salt, but can also be glazed with sugar or other flavors.

Propyl Gallate
A food additive used as an antioxidant to protect food.

Propylene Glycol
A food additive used as an emulsifying agent to keep ingredients from separating.

Prune Juice Concentrate

Pumpkin Seeds
The edible seed of a pumpkin, often shelled and roasted.

Purple Carrot Juice

Purple Sweet Potato Extract

Pyridoxine

Pyridoxine Hydrochloride

Raisins
Grapes that have been dried.

Rapeseed Oil

Raspberries
Soft, red berries grown all around the world. In the United States, they are often picked during the summer months, but can be eaten year round in a variety of forms, such as dried or frozen. Raspberries have a sweet flavor and provide fiber and different vitamins and minerals.

Raspberry Juice Concentrate

Raspberry Powder

Raspberry Puree

Raspberry Puree Concentrate


Red 3
An artificial color approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (U.S. FDA) for use in foods, drugs and cosmetics. It gives food a pink shade color. Also known as Erythrosine. For more information, visit here: More On Candy Colors

Red 40
An artificial color approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (U.S. FDA) for use in foods, drugs and cosmetics. It gives food a red color. Also known as Allura Red. For more information, visit here: More On Candy Colors

Red Grape Juice Concentrate

Reduced Iron
A type of the essential mineral, iron, found in animal products and dark leafy greens, involved in oxygen transfer by red blood cells. Used to fortify cereal and grain products.

Reduced Minerals Whey
Whey that has had much of its mineral content removed.


Refined Palm Kernel Oil

Resinous Glaze
A glaze derived from food grade shellac that is applied to foods to improve their appearance and protect them.

Riboflavin

Rice
A cereal grain grown around the world. There are different kinds of rice, including white, brown, black, red, and purple, each with specific nutrient qualities. Rice is often enriched with vitamins and minerals to replace nutrients removed during processing.

Rice Bran Extract
The oil extracted from the husk of the rice.

Rice Flour
A flour prepared by grinding rice and removing its water content.

Rice Lecithin

Rice Maltodextrin
A food additive obtained from rice and used to thicken foods.

Rice Protein
A type of vegetarian protein derived from rice often used to increase protein content in foods.

Rice Starch
Starch derived from rice. Used as a thickener.


Rice Syrup Solids
Rice syrup that has had most of its water removed to provide a sweeter taste.

Rose Hips
Fruit of a rose with a mildly tart flavor.

Saccharin
A no-calorie sweetener that is 500 times sweeter than sugar. Because it is so sweet, only very small amounts are used.

Safflower Oil


Sea Salt
Salt obtained from the evaporation of seawater.

Semi-Sweet Chocolate
A blend of chocolate liquor with cocoa butter, sugar, flavor such as vanilla or other ingredients, and sometimes an emulsifier, such as lecithin. Semi-sweet chocolate is required to contain a minimum of 28% chocolate liquor. Also known as bittersweet chocolate.

Sesame Seeds
Very small, oval seeds obtained from the tree Sesanum. Sesame seeds add a slight nutty flavor to foods. Very small, oval seeds obtained from the tree Sesanum. Sesame seeds add a slight nutty flavor to foods.

Shea Oil
Oil that is obtained from shea-nuts which are seeds from the shea tree.

Silicon Dioxide
A food additive used to prevent lumps from forming in an ingredient.

Skim (Nonfat) Milk Powder



Sodium Alginate
A natural gum obtained from various types of seaweed that acts as a stabilizer in food and helps improve its texture.

Sodium Aluminum Phosphate
A compound found in some baking powders to help baked goods rise.

Sodium Ascorbate

Sodium Benzoate
A food additive that helps preserve food and increase a product's shelf life. It can also be found naturally at low levels in various fruits, such as cranberries, apples, and prunes.

Sodium Bicarbonate
A fine powder that has a slight salty and alkaline taste. Often used in baking to help baked goods rise. More commonly known as baking soda.

Sodium Carbonate
A food additive that helps balance the level of acidity in food and also improve texture.

Sodium Carboxymethylcellulose
A food additive that has a variety of uses, including a bulking agent, emulsifier, gelling or thickener, and a glazing agent.

Sodium Caseinate

Sodium Chloride

Sodium Citrate

Sodium Hydroxide
A food additive used to adjust the acidity of a food. Sodium hydroxide can be used in the processing of cocoa to make cocoa processed with alkali.

Sodium Lactate
A food additive that acts as a preservative to increase a product's shelf life and to help control the acid level in food.

Sodium Metabisulfite
A food additive used as a preservative to help food stay fresh longer.

Sodium Phosphate
A food additive that helps baked goods rise and also helps control the acidity level of processed foods.

Sorbic Acid
A food additive that acts as a preservative to prevent the growth of bacteria and mold.

Sorbitan Monostearate
An ingredient made of saturated fatty acids and sugar alcohols that acts as an emulsifier to keep ingredients from separating.

Sorbitan Tristearate
An ingredient made of saturated fatty acids and sugar alcohols that acts as an emulsifier to keep ingredients from separating.

Sorbitol
A reduced-calorie sugar alcohol derived from corn, and also found naturally in fruits like apples and pears. Sorbitol has about half the sweetness of sugar and is used to replace sugar, or as a humectant in foods to help preserve the moisture.

Soy (Soya) Lecithin

Soy Crisps
Puffed soy protein used to enhance the texture of food and increase protein content.

Soy Flour
Flour made from defatted soybeans. Adds texture and flavor to foods.

Soy Nuts
Boiled, drained and roasted soybeans that can increase the protein and fiber content in food.

Soy Protein
A high quality protein obtained from soybeans used to increase the protein content of food. Sometimes also used as a whipping agent to create a more stable foam, such as egg white foam.

Soy Protein Isolate
A concentrated form of soy protein that contains at least 90% protein. Used to increase protein content in food.

Soybean Oil

Soybeans
An edible legume. Often used to increase protein content of foods and the natural source of some vegetable oil.

Spearmint Oil
Oil obtained from the spearmint plant. Used as a flavoring agent.

Spices
Dried seed, fruit, root, bark or vegetables used primarily for flavor. Common spices include cinnamon, mustard, cloves, ginger, curry, etc.

Starch
The most common type of carbohydrate derived from various foods such as wheat, corn, rice, and potatoes.

Steviol Glycosides

Strawberry Juice Concentrate

Sucralose
A no-calorie artificial sweetener about 300 to 1000 times as sweet as sugar and is also sold under the brand name Splenda®. Because it is so sweet, only very small amounts are used.

Sucrose
Table sugar. Composed of equal parts glucose and fructose and typically obtained commercially from sugar beets and sugar cane.



Sulfur Dioxide

Sunflower Lecithin

Sunflower Oil

Sunflower Seed Butter
A paste produced from sunflower seeds. Used to enhance the flavor of food. Also known as sunflower butter or sunbutter.

Sweet Cherry Juice Concentrate

Sweet Chocolate
A chocolate prepared by mixing chocolate liquor with a sweetener, such as sugar. Sweet chocolate is required to contain between 15-28% chocolate liquor.

Sweetened Condensed Milk

Tapioca Dextrin

Tapioca Flour
Flour obtained from grinding the root of the cassava plant and removing its water content.

Tapioca Maltodextrin
Starch derived from tapioca. Used to stabilize ingredients in food products and add bulk to food.


Tartrazine

TBHQ
A food additive used as an antioxidant and stabilizer in food products. Also known as tert-Butylhydroquinone.

Tetrasodium Pyrophosphate

Thiamine Mononitrate

Titanium Dioxide
An artificial color used in foods, drugs and cosmetics. Approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (U.S. FDA).

Toasted Coconut
Coconut that is toasted.

Toasted Soya Pieces
Toasted pieces of soybeans, a high protein bean, used to increase the protein content of food.

Tocopherols

Tricalcium Phosphate
A food additive used to improve the texture of salt and used as a bleaching agent for flour to make it appear whiter. Can also be used to increase the calcium content.

Triglycerides
Composed of one glycerol molecule and three fatty acids. Used to enhance the flavor of food.

Trisodium Citrate
A food additive used as a preservative to increase a product's shelf life. Also known as Sodium Citrate.

Unsweetened Chocolate

Vanilla
An ingredient made from vanilla beans. Used to add and enhance flavor.


Vanilla Extract


Vegetable Fat
Vegetable oils that are solid at room temperature.

Vegetable Juice (Color/Colour)


Vinegar
A sour flavored liquid obtained through the fermentation of alcoholic liquids such as wine or cider. Used to enhance the flavor of food. Made primarily of water and acetic acid. No alcohol remains in vinegar.

Vitamin A
A fat soluble vitamin important for growth and development, maintenance of the immune system and good vision.

Vitamin A Palmitate
A stable form of Vitamin A.









Vitamin D
A fat-soluble vitamin that can be ingested through food or made by the body when exposed to sunlight. It helps with the absorption of vitamins and minerals in the body and is often found in fortified dairy products. Also known as the "Sunshine Vitamin.”

Vitamin D2
A form of vitamin D used to fortify foods.

Vitamin D3 (Cholecalciferol)
A fat-soluble vitamin needed for normal growth and development, especially of bones and teeth.


Vitamins
Organic compounds that are needed for proper development. Because some vitamins cannot be made by the body, they are obtained through the diet.

Waxy Rice Starch
Starch obtained from rice that provides a creamy texture and improves the freezing quality of food.

Wheat Flour
Flour made from types of wheat.

Wheat Starch
Starch obtained from wheat. Serves as a thickening agent in food.

Wheat Syrup
Food syrup obtained by separating the water from wheat starch and converting it into glucose.

Whey
A high-quality protein naturally present in milk. Used to increase the protein content of food.

Whey Permeate
An ingredient obtained through the removal of protein from whey. Adds flavor, color and enhances the appearance of food.

Whey Protein Concentrate
Whey that has had much of its non-protein material removed. Contains at least 25% protein.

Whey Protein Isolate
A derivative of milk used to increase the protein content of foods A derivative of milk used to increase the protein content of foods A derivative of milk used to increase the protein content of foods

Whey Proteins
The proteins present in whey. Used to enhance the protein content of food.

White Chocolate
The food prepared by mixing cocoa butter with a milk ingredient and a sweetener. It may not contain any coloring material.

Whole Graham Flour


Whole Grain Barley Flakes

Whole Grain Brown Rice

Whole Grain Corn Flour

Whole Grain Oat Flour

Whole Grain Rice Flour

Whole Grain Yellow Corn Flour

Whole Milk Powder


Whole Wheat Flour

Whole Wheat Graham Flour

Whole White Wheat Flour

Xanthan Gum
A gum produced through the fermentation of corn sugar. Used as a thickener and emulsifier in food products.

Xylitol
A sugar alcohol derived from fruits, vegetables, and hardwoods. Used as a reduced calorie sweetener to replace sugars.

Yeast
An ingredient used in the baking industry to help baked goods rise.


Yellow 6
An artificial color approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (U.S. FDA) for use in foods, drugs and cosmetics. It gives food an orange color. Also known as Sunset Yellow. For more information, visit here: More On Candy Colors

Zinc
A mineral necessary for protein synthesis and cell growth in the body.

Zinc Gluconate
A zinc compound used to fortify foods.

Zinc Oxide
A zinc compound used to fortify foods.

Zinc Sulfate
A zinc compound used to fortify foods.